Bulg. J. Phys. vol.34 no.s1 (2007), pp. 046-056

Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

P. Krustev1, T. Ruskov2
1Radiology and Radiation Therapy, Oncology clinic, 15$^{\text A}$ V. Aprilov Blvd., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko Chaussee 72, BG-1784, Sofia, Bulgaria
Abstract. In this paper we describe different biomedical application using magnetic nanoparticles. Over the past decade, a number of biomedical applications have begun to emerge for magnetic nanoparticles of differing sizes, shapes, and compositions. Areas under investigation include targeted drug delivery, ultra-sensitive disease detection, gene therapy, high throughput genetic screening, biochemical sensing, and rapid toxicity cleansing.
Magnetic nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic behavior, magnetizing strongly under an applied field. In the second case (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) there is no permanent magnetism once the field is removed. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles are highly attractive as in vivo probes or in vitro tools to extract information on biochemical systems. The optical properties of magnetic metal nanoparticles are spectacular and, therefore, have promoted a great deal of excitement during the last few decades. Many applications as MRI imaging and hyperthermia rely on the use of iron oxide particles. Moreover magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies are also applied to hyperthermia and have enabled tumor specific contrast enhancement in MRI. Other promising biomedical applications are connected with tumor cells treated with magnetic nanoparticles with X-ray ionizing radiation, which employs magnetic nanoparticles as a complementary radiate source inside the tumor.

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