Bulg. J. Phys. vol.41 no.2 (2014), pp. 142-171

Role of Lie Algebra for Confinement in Non-Abelian Gauge Field Scheme

K. Fukushima1, H. Sato2
1Advanced Reactor Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523, Japan
2Department of Physics, Hyogo University of Education, Yashiro-cho, Kato-shi, Hyogo 673-1494, Japan
Abstract. This article reports an explicit function form for confining classical Yang-Mills vector potentials and quantum fluctuations around the classical field. The classical vector potential, which is composed of a confining localized function and an unlocalized function, satisfies the classical Yang-Mills equation. The confining localized function contributes to the Wilson loop, while the unlocalized function makes no contribution to this loop. The confining linear potential between a heavy fermion and antifermion is due to (1) the Lie algebra and (2) the form of the confining localized function which has opposite signs at the positions of the particle and antiparticle along the Wilson loop in the time direction. Some classical confining parts of vector potentials also change sign on inversion of the coordinates of the axis perpendicular to the axis joining the two particles. The localized parts of the vector potentials are squeezed around the axis connecting the two particles, and the string tension of the confining linear potential is derived. Quantum fluctuations are formulated using a field expression in terms of local basis functions in real spacetime. The quantum path integral gives the Coulomb potential between the two particles in addition to the linear potential due to the classical fields.

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